adam smith- can machines be marketed to value each next child born?

Leon Botstein, Soros and other greatest educators of sdg generation

2025 report - 37th year of re-editing at
sustainability generation -50 most exciting ideas in education
miracles of human development - curriculum of women empowerment
beyond covid ai quiz
ai survey #3 monthly ai highlights oct 2020 to oct 2021 -road to glasgow cop26
ai chartering of twin guides of un2.0
un100 - sustainability tales of 4 quarters
will singapore come out top in 1000 humans of AI
entrepreneur dictionary
dictionary ai and 2025 report by norman macrae and chris macrae
community building usa
Entrepreneurial Revolution 1976 The Economist by Norman Macrae
fei-fei li- humansAI laureate of 2020s- thanks pro-youth academia & StanfordChinaEconomist zoomers
universities and AI superport maps
what else does ai do
mapping world 2020 to 0
fazle abed ,AI SD goal 1 END POVERTY BY nations,cities, markets, tech and uni coalitions .
hk & sustainable youth's win-win nations
20 reasons why top male bosses in english speaking nations are destroying their peoples
help map 75 years of innovation challenges to uniting nations
networks of sdg generation
the last 3 generations of exploring machines and humans
what if preventing species extinction depends on new universities
AI, data platforms, governing sustainable city or nation
how 10 places taught geo-connectivity of humans 0 to 2020
what is sustainability?
economist survey 1984 future of health for all
what would happen if alumni of mandela abed gandhi zoomed a global uni of poverty?
260th year of adam smith alumni valuing youth and machines
can tech resolve bad banking, mad health markets, sad edu
Play The Games of World Record Jobs creators: Entrepreneurial Revolution
multilateral development by 103 nations
quiz on system leaps forward for humanity since 1945 UNVEST
what happened to humans in last 75 years
america's fatal disease =impractical top experts
mediatech guide to shelf - top 20 markets friends of livesmatter value
learn about virus with bill gates and davies -app grounded theory
loving midsets of english, chinese, and conscious coders
map human lot at 2020 -machines 260 , new world big ship 520 top 16 missing curricula of 2020
100 questions most pre-digital economists get wrong or fail to ask
100 ways standardised testing destroys youth's sustainability
worldwide tours of UN sdgs -where do you map sdg studies from - bay 1 med sea bay 2 rising asia bay 3 far west bay .
humanAI edu VIPKID cindy mi, kai-fu lee li ka-shing
2020 what would adam smith make of man & machine @260
non virus solution curricula to sustainability goals 1-16
covid19 5th grade curricula -corona virus
what would florence make of health servant leadership
9* Sir Fazle Abed
borlaug, deming & royal triad of japan uk netherlands kuan yew ka-shing
von neumann moore and mit
korolev jfk attenborough brilliant kalam berners-lee torvaulds
damo francis gandhi einstein soros schwarzman
deng ma ma mi bryant
gates jobs bezos brin
franklin bell ford boeing mclean shima
koike chen cuomo bloomberg guterres ki-moon jae-in jyk
dont let us tv ad age destroy your kids and communities
2020s human beings 3rd and last chance
newest curricula 20.1 corona
85-25 valuing 9 times healthier human networking absolutely critical
help co-edit and 20 blogs of
imagine how different peoples industrial revolution could have been with adam smith
smithian scholars class 260 - hi-trust markets united human goals
Leon Botstein, Soros and other greatest educators of sdg generation
zoom to tele-education -post corona world
do you know how to value 3-dimensional economics- of globe, of 200 nations, of top 50 categories
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OSUN first global university empowering sdg generation coalitions
fazle abed and a billion people's favorite education network
Soros 50 countries
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Agricultural/Rural economics- blunders and freedoms
ten to follow in india
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will your city change more in 2020s than in last 50 years?
Do you dare to trust 7 wonders of SDG gen 2030?
is self-learning possible
5G ..1G 0G networks & 2030 sustainability of nations
5G sustainability - FINDINGS
5G sustainability - CONCLUSIONS
5G Sustainability - RECOMMENDATIONS
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what if teachers were valued more than economists
valuetrue maths of sustainable systems
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what's cashless banking? examineless education?
blockchain world war 3 updates -aka will $ disappear before trump's face on it
Chinese AI according to DC thinktank csis
future of education & half the world
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what if jfkennedy had met royals of UK japan- sustainability consequences
mapping how communications revolution would destroy industrial era rules
50 years of english language economies destroying humanity
corporate valuation : environmental ai
Mapping India's 17 most exciting races
Norman Macrae- hubs of Entrepreneurial Revolution @ The Economist &
Hong Kong 2019-1996, Ukraine 1999 &
NEWS of Sustainability Curricula of Population
show me education -end standard exams
valuing war & peace- sustainability & goals uniting billions of families
5G 4G 3G 2G 1G 0G Human Ops of decades since moon landing
Sustianability's Year 49 The Economist search 30K community rising business & service models
MIcroeconomics puzzles- 90% of human lot advanced by SMES
AI education
there is not a sustainable place on earth yet- why not?
G5 4 3 2 1G TC wealth & equality of nations
AI Finance
UN extinction or trade that is the question.
AI Health & Safety
AI Food (for people) Energy (for machine)
AI Infra Maps - trade webs without walls
AI music sports arts fashions community heroines
AI public servant leaders and goodwill valuation
ai world fund benchmark softbank
AI smart places - eg shared economies models, big data local
youth places win-win currency
Ma's men and women
Tsinghua #1 DigitalCooperation MIT #2
2019 Geneva to honor huawei and top 20 of made in the internet
Celebrating JIm Yong Kim
Hackhikers guide to girls sdg generation
18th annual update of hubsworld
happy 2019- 2'oclock rock on stopping extinction of species
Do you know womens most valuable lesson from 20th century?
13 Belt Roads -TUPU
Exploring 100 Jack Ma Partnerships
10 times more economical health care 1984-2025
what is world's most valuable resource? - your place will grow or decline 5 fold by 2050- which? how?
Food security - insects plus
Sustainability - the most urgent games people will ever play
AI round the world
50 years mapping why sustainability needs East to be in top 2 all AI markets by 2025
what if AI world's robots were programmed by Trump?
GPLETFORC League of Nations
This months youthcooperation meetings
world record job creators before moon landing
#BR0 young leaders : naturally china largest gdp by 2030 whatever trump does
China Capitalism - How Women & Youth were asked to Change www sustainability
supernation economics valuetrue maths crisis: nature values geo & eco systems more than humans
How can you help students and teachers who discover sustainability's missing solutions?
Love & Sustainability: remembered by son and grandddaughter
Listing 100 reasons why big organisations have zero value unless they serve small enterprises
Huawei wizards number 1 brand
#BR2 South Asia's Coastal Belt - further references
Year in 2019 from
questions on NY's AI Now Report
where can people chat seriously about youth livelihoods
how to help next 2 years of research of world record jobs
what supercities does a nation need to sustain fifth of world people and worldwide youth
HubWorld Update
Game- choose 5 co-leaders to sustain mother earth
DigitalCooperation- Sustainability Youth World Trade Flight Map
Did positive world trade mapping end with silk road 500 years ago
Can the old world save america's new world
Why women dont see g7 nations as leading sustainability solutions
Where do gov value young technologists most
Case 1 learning from world's largest livelihood educator and cashless bnaker
Sports Arts top 10 non-sustainable market
Will USA lose First 100 Nations of Sustainability Status?
#BR1 East of China &
Do you know the 10 most disastrous mistakes macroeconomists can make
universe of world record jobs and sustainability
#BR6 #TheEconomist do americans want to save humans from extinction?
#BR10 latin america
news blockchain & edu belt road
stories developing for new uni alibabauni and arcticuni ...
#BR5 #TheEconomist West Europe
#br3 #theeconomist russia what if america's politicians and media wasted last third of century
Prince Charles
Can Artificials win-win with human Intelligences
its not social unless its 51% social
old homepage
Paradox Francis
youth's tech glossary to 2023 (2000 times moore e- than 1946)
sustainability2019-2020- linkin 1000 times moore rising suns with japan
50 shades of green
Mapping Sustainabililty WWW 1946-2030
?Mapping 3 millennia of world trade
Nobel Dr Yunus did not invent banking for the poor, what he did do...
MICES- Map-Integrate-Community-Economics-Sustainability
How English Failed Democracy's FInal Exam 2 Centuries in a Row
Guide to 4000 times Moore tech era of WorldRecordJobs Creators tsinghua &
unctad dialogue
Yunus top 10 concepts - what to learn, what not to copy?
Was JFK last president to explore how to SME every possible value chain
education's 3 greatest jobs creators
Do you know how to map world trade routes?
How about Soros & Francis & Kim if your politicians ban ending poverty with Asian Girl Power
Place branding- how singapore rose to top of class as US. EU bottomed
which markets will sustainability 30000 most vital solutions come from
Norman Macrae Economist's view of why 21st C needs to get happier and happier alumni clubs
The United Nations of Girls
Jobs Belt Roads Top 13
What is Sustainability?
17 goals of SDG nations - or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5
BENT - did Americans Lose IT?
news from china *and delas " which we dont quite understand yet
Studying Bangladesh - Economists' and Sustainability's Greatest MIracle
10 most exciting developments students 2018-2019
pro-youth financial genius -Rumee Ali
pro-youth banking 2012) and jobs education (2017)
Which of 7 Belt Road Movements are you Mapping
Asian Research Future of Education
2020s to 1945 5G 4G 3G 2G 1G 0G Moon 60s UN1945
Technology leapfrogging and the end of poverty
Is it possible to sustain planet earth without west's g7 nations?
what were the 2 world wars really about? freedom to trade...
Shall we design markets for 10 billion, 3 bn or zero people?
learn from most conscious network in girls world
MIT Matech US-East
Mapping Economics of Ports & Railroads & Digital
Livelihood Education Open Space
Global Uni of Poverty - why SDgirls value china's BAT not US FAG
brac 49 years of 7 by 7 webs of ngo world partners
Privatization - good, bad, terribly no-sustainable?
Cost of Girls True News
Wang Jianlin why under 30s need to value boats & trains more than cars and planes
My favorite europe university east of glasgow is in mortal danger?
Who's Afraid of Diversity of 195 nations
economy of billion poorest girls - bangla &
economies where mass thrives, do no evil to poorest, east belt road economy since 1950
economics of sports and
amy space
what scottish economists actually said
WRJC Missionaries Impossible
top 8 job creators jinping, pope francis, sir fazle, jack ma, jae-in &
Brac's curriculum - of how girls built 8th most populated nation on trust and love
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welcome to AI sustainability trade mapping BELTUSASIA,com
marketing's new ;playbook
lessons from first 3000 US alumni trained by jack ma detroit
New York Sept 2018 - Is teaching sustainability possible?
g20 argentina summit july 2018
100 cities -sustainability's last call
belts 65 industrial zones- exploring links to jobs, tech hubs and learning exchanges
survey - where are the world's favorite coding schools
help draft urgent request to world bank jim kim
Optimistic reasons 2018's sustainbility summits will leap to changing education round 3 bn new jobs
ObamaUni #TheEconomist
Feb 2018 par 1/6 months girlsnchnage education at United Nations
imagine if media was used for youth to debate top 7 job creators why BAT is not FAG
Mastermind Quiz- saving human race from extinction 2030-1946
History's WRJC including Gandhi Marx Smith Keynes &
can education help youth save humanity from extinction?
who do you know - world record job creators or destroyers?
100 years of reporting the market for poverty alleviation
2019-2020 Beijing Belt Road Forum 2 May 2019; Japan G20 and Alibaba Olympics
2018 year that india and china raced to end poverty : together!
Celebrating East West South North- What 3.5 billion elders Can do in next 1461 days
aiib 2018 mumbai june
WISE@UNGA 2018 september new york
4.5A - changing education
trade maps - development of peoples by goodwill (health) and finance (wealth)
do you know joyful stories of sustainability gen's students and teachers
3 new banking summits: aiib mumbai, sco qingdao , brics joburg
3 WISE SUMMITS - Accra May, UN New York Sept, Paris March 2019
Ali Baba - TOP 5 ECONOMY OF 21st C
WRJCbook not facebook
ngo rankings by friends of norman macrae foundation
entrepreneur military
Exciting Development Economists - Norman Macrae
whathappened USA
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is diesel one of the dirtiest of energies?
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top 5 micro word trade platforms for creating 3 billion news jobs for under 30s
lessons from lessons from 80 country club redesigning investment banks round green infrastructure
who's who of celebrating end of tv ad age
how south korea is pullin all stops out to be china's best supporter of sustainability generation
characters at aiib 2017 include
East's 70 years of amazing development economic models
exploring the world's history and future through eyes of young chinese ladies & auld scottish allies
fast changing question - who can finance humanity's life critical goals?
explore young world's top 25 job creating platforms
how can everyone build the most valuable idea the world has ever heard of
year 34 of why not free trade with russian people
un year of ecotourism
4th grade Girl's 20 stories of futures worthy of human race
is cnn destroying its value
rejuventaion of media - why youth alumni of happy east will sustain humanity, dismal west wont
chinese millennials -sustainability half billion lead storytellers
world cultural entrepreneur - who?
100 days -- 1/14.6 #TheEconomist
what is the future of retail?
How to design 3 billion new jobs around youth
#youthtech - worldwide brand charter search by Baltimore
world's most valuable question- which markets are good for all the peoples?
2020,2019,2018 = now!
west baltiimore - the most collaborative urban city space for sustainability (goal 11)
Sustaining fully employed youth and 100$ graduate degrees
Conscious Post Its
why parents need to mentor kids in email curriculum k-12
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The Games of World Record Job Creation
how to value partners
10* jinping and other world record place leaders
1* Jack Ma
where is #learninggeneration going to and coming from?
future history sustainability #1461
8* Muhammad Yunus
which corporations/sectors are making education their main corporate responsibility
America's number 1 crisis - antisocial media -god bless us
What would world miss if JYK hadnt existed 2012-2022?
HOwen OPEN space
Alumni of Gandhi/Mandela
Emperor Hirohito ( Showa ) One of Greatest Leaders ever by Norman Macrae
Newest branches of POP - West Africa 014, Vatican 013, World Bank 012
the most valuable satellite guided learning tour - sustaining 7 billion being's community nursing
Grassroots rural networks save the world
Diary of , and myUNuslab
When are Bono's Pop Stars On Song in Claiming investing 10% in Agriculture best way to end poverty
Exponential Goals
44th annual newsletter of elearning millennials and job creation started at The Economist
Comparing world bank #2030now structure wit other millennials world class end poverty networks
business models
bottom up pieces of solar, and linksin to future of green finance
bangla economic miracle lesson 1 first trillion dollar audit of a sustainable nation is healthcare
valuing millennials
Help curate Soros ineteconomic invitation to millennials to rethink economics and open society
inbox; could the next 5 years of elearning make or Break our human RACE
Game 1 Top 10 Open Universities that value youth most?
valuetrue search for most human value of internet
Saving Youth - Top 100 Videos to Viralise people i wish i had introduced the poor world's greatest jobs creator to
searching bookworm
Blank page
20 classes -cataloguing frames of partners in publishing world record job creation
Why nature will not sustain human species unless act now on biggest mistakes economists made Q3 C21
Which brand most collaboratively values millennials goals to 2030?
will partnerships of catholic universities be first to free business curriculum 21st women and youth
Course World Record Job Creators -by friends of The Economist's Macrae's Net Generation's Heroes
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MillennialHealth Curriculum - next half billion jobs
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1758 birth of moral viewpoint of economics as social action
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Mindset's Great Escape: elders economics war on youth
Curriculum of safe community banking
Curriculum of The Web as I envisaged it, we have not seen it yet. The future is still so much bigger
Diary of when/where youth can linkin to sustain world
2030 curriculum of Gandhi - year 14 of gossiping good news of OMAGINE
Nobel Peace Summit Curriculum Competition
curriculum of washington dc - worst of best pro-youth capital
Conscious Capitalism $64 Trillion Dollar Curriculum - Purpose of Hi-Trust banking 99% of humans need
Who was missing from cast of first social good summit-mooc?
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Which trillion dollar markets have even one ceo leading best for youth futures
debates with big funders of end poverty schemes
will media barons ever learn to value connections between likes and dislikes?
The Future History of Social Business Since 1976
how does conscious capitalism relate to valuetrue exchange
VT & collaboration entrepreneur revolution of micrifranchies and bottom-up value chain mapping
VT and the compound risks of unseen wealth
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3 most important metrics of pro-youth economics: goodwill, sustainability, transparency
Book Introduction to economics of youth
chris macrae linkedin
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#BR0 China & #TheEconomist
#BR9 Africa #theeconomist
#BR3 Russia #BR4 East Europe #TheEconomist
#BR7 Middle East #TheEconomist
#BR11 Arctic Belt Road
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leon botstein and greatest educators of sdg youth
Leon Botstein and greatest educators of sdg generation

All Roads lead to BARD - epicentre of Soros legacy to youth finding their place in the world

81 ways ahead week 5 (in conjunction of alternatives to spending 1461 days distractinsg youth with big brothers TRUMPet: to and from japan tokyo and japan society NY: please continue checking whether any musical friends are friends of - we have linked in one of his and soros 3 main campuses to vienna boys choir but we still havent found which asian music leader can connect with him directly - we will connect girls empowerment asia from april when ban ki-moon  expected to hosts hi-level vienna meetup- soros has announced 1 billion dollars of fresh funds for botstein choice of partners but he is under pressure to work out what of soros 31 billion dollars past spends still helps youth be the sdgs generation. i will try again to linkin brooklyn black communities tomorrow- they ost out when new york refused bezos -will be back again as jesse jackson wall strret meeting ny march 10 


from east to west - we have annotated George and Alex Soros twitter followers by geographical context where simple to map-help needed across every Belt Road and whereey influencers dont use twitter

 BRAC U 2.0 Dhaka and Fulbright Uni Vietnam, Ho Chin Min City   accounts twitter unless L linkedin:  Fazle Abed to dec 2019; Ban Ki-Moon L:Vincent Chang

Jan 28, 2020 - Brac University is planning to integrate teaching and research to better prepare students for current and future global challenges. They intend to ...
Jan 23, 2020 - DAVOS, SWITZERLAND—George Soros announced today that he is ... of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan and BRAC University in Bangladesh.

Apr 2, 2018 - NEW YORK—George Soros and the Open Society Foundations today announced an emergency assistance fund of $10 million to help Rohingya people displaced from Myanmar and host communities in Bangladesh. ... “The Rohingya people have already suffered serious abuses in Myanmar, and unless ... › latest-news › item › 1230-ban-ki-moon-meets-vincent...
BRAC University President and Vice-Chancellor Vincent Chang met Chairman of the Global Commission on Adaptation and former UN Secretary General Ban ...
Nov 25, 2019 - Former United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has come to address Brac University's (BU) 13th Convocation on 23 November, 2019, ...
Jan 25, 2020 - George Soros, the global financier and philanthropist, has ... University (Lithuania); Fulbright University Vietnam; Sciences Po in Paris (France); ...
7 days ago - Bard College and Central European University have, with support from ... European Humanities University, and Fulbright University of Vietnam, ...
Open Society University Network (OSUN) at Bard College. ... Fulbright University of Vietnam Sciences Po in Paris (France) SOAS University of London (United ...
George Soros - 2019 - ‎Political Science
Having a unique, global education and having it entirely within the CEU-Bard network should eventually make it largely self-financing ... Myanmar, and Vietnam).

 AU Central Asia Kyrgistan

... individuals that work on the issues we focus on—promoting tolerance, transparency, and open debate. Learn more · Who We Are · Our History · George Soros ...

Through Bard, Dr. Becker provides support to several of Bard's international ... Administration degree in the American University Central Asia (1998) and an MBA ... 

  Al Quds Bard Jersualem

Al-Quds Bard (AQB) College for Arts and Sciences in East Jerusalem emphasizes student-centered learning, the development of inquiry, and the free exchange ...

The Al-Quds Bard faculty brings together an energetic group of respected scholars, theorists, writers, and artists who balance active research with an unflagging ... 



 (Soros) Central European University Vienna

The Open Society University Network (OSUN) is a new global network that integrates learning and the advancement of knowledge across geographic and ... 

European Humanities Uni Belarus


Bard College Berlin 

Ashesi Uni Ghana 

Bard Colege New York State...........

Arizona  State U

   Scice PO Paris    


 Bard NY State and CEU moved after 30 years in budapest to vienna nov 2019 will form the core of this new network. Members of Bard’s existing undergraduate liberal arts network, including Al-Quds Bard College of Arts and Sciences, American University of Central Asia, Bard College Berlin, European Humanities University, and Fulbright University of Vietnam, will participate actively in OSUN programs, as will new partners including




The Open Society Prize was granted to economist and Nobel Prize laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz for a lifetime of brilliant economic analysis and outspoken advocacy of open society values.


The Open Society Prize was awarded to the distinguished Hungarian economist Janos Kornai in recognition of his work inspiring economic transition in former communist societies.


Joachim Gauck, president of Germany from 2012 to 2017, was awarded the 2017 Open Society Prize in recognition of his courageous defense of human rights and his distinguished record in the service of free societies.


MSF was named the winner of the 2016 CEU Open Society Prize in recognition of the courageous humanitarian leadership the organization has shown throughout the world. 


IRF was named the winner of the 2015 CEU Open Society Prize in recognition of its contribution to efforts toward the creation of an open society in Ukraine. 

2014 / KRISTALINA GEORGIEVA, European Commissioner for International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response

The Open Society Prize was granted to Georgieva for her activity and direct involvement in crisis management and aid to Haiti, Pakistan, and Chile after natural disasters. 

2013 / SIR FAZLE HASAN ABED KCMG, Founder and Chairperson of BRAC

The Open Society Prize was granted to Abed for establishing BRAC (formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) to initiate rehabilitation activities in Bangladesh. BRAC has become the largest development organization in the world in terms of the scale and diversity of its interventions. BRAC is ranked #1 on the Global Journal's list of Top 100 NGOs. 

2012 / ARYEH NEIER, Former President of the Open Society Foundations

2011 / JAVIER SOLANA, High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy/Secretary General of the Council of the European Union and co-recipient RICHARD C. HOLBROOKE, U.S. Special Envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan (awarded posthumously)

2010 / LOUISE ARBOUR, President and CEO of The International Crisis Group, Chief Prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda.

2009 / MARTTI AHTISAARI, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate (2008), Former President of the Republic of Finland (1994-2000), and Founder of the Crisis Management Initiative

2008 / KOFI A. ANNAN, Seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations

2007 / CARLA DEL PONTE, Former Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

The Open Society prize was granted to Del Ponte in recognition of her enormous contribution to the process of achieving justice for the victims of serious violations of international humanitarian law.

2006 / RICARDO LAGOS, Former President of Chile

The Open Society Prize was granted to Lagos for his enormous contribution to the political and social development of Chile, notably the crucial role he played in the fight for the recovery of democracy there and the substantial social, economic and educational reforms which he initiated in his long and distinguished political career. 

2005 / ANTJIE KROG, Poet, Writer, Journalist

2004 / EMMA BONINO, Member, European Parliament

2003 / TOM LANTOS, Congressman, U.S. House of Representatives

2002 / MIKHEIL SAAKASHVILI, Former Minister of Justice of Georgia 
and co-recipient ZURAB ZHVANIA, Former Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia

2001 / BRONISLAW GEREMEK, Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland

2000 / ARPAD GONCZ, President of the Republic of Hungary and co-recipient MAMPHELA RAMPHELE, a Managing Director of the World Bank

1999 / VACLAV HAVEL, President of the Czech Republic

1994 / KARL POPPER, Philosopher 


    (United States)

    Bard College, founded in 1860, is highly regarded for its excellence in liberal arts and sciences teaching and its innovations in bringing high-quality education to underserved communities. Bard is a leader in forging international partnerships and integrating civic engagement and the arts across its undergraduate and graduate programs.


    The Central European University (CEU) is a graduate institution founded in 1991. Its mission is to promote open societies and democracy through advanced research and research-based teaching, primarily in the social sciences and humanities.




Institutions Participating in First-Phase OSUN Projects*
    Al-Quds University/Al-Quds Bard College of Arts and Sciences (Palestine)
    American University of Bulgaria
    American University of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan)
    Arizona State University (Unites States)
    Ashesi University (Ghana)
    Bard College Berlin (Germany)
    Birkbeck: University of London (United Kingdom)
    BRAC University (Bangladesh)
    European Humanities University (Lithuania)
    Fulbright University of Vietnam
    Princeton University: Global History Lab (United States)
    Sciences Po in Paris (France)
    SOAS University of London (United Kingdom)
    Universidad de los Andes ​​​​​​​(Colombia)
    Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs (United States)
    Chatham House (United Kingdom)
    Institute for New Economic Thinking (United States and United Kingdom)
    Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen (Austria)
    Open Society Archives (Hungary)
    Rift Valley Institute (Kenya)
    The Talloires Network (United States)

    *OSUN is actively in discussions with other potential partners that share its principles and academic ambition.


OSUN builds on the accomplishments of several major initiatives in higher education supported by the Open Society Foundations (OSF). In the 1990s, OSF’s Higher Education Support Program (HESP) effectively served as a Marshall Plan for higher education in Central and Eastern Europe. CEU, founded in 1991, became a unique model in graduate education, combining cutting-edge research and research-based teaching with a focused social mission.



Network Courses
Network Debate with students from international partner institutions.

Network Courses

Challenging Students to Examine the Ideas and Practices of Being a Global Citizen in the 21st Century
OSUN Network Courses are virtual international exchanges that unite students and faculty from several universities located in different parts of the world in the classroom, sharing faculty and conducting joint research projects in which people from many universities collaborate.

Get Engaged: Student Action and Youth Leadership Conference
Get Engaged Conference, Budapest. Photo by Zarlasht Sarmast

Get Engaged: Student Action and Youth Leadership Conference

Empowering Young Leaders of Change
Student leaders from an international network of institutions gather every spring for a five-day conference at Central European University's campus in Budapest, Hungary. The Get Engaged Conference gives students the opportunity to develop community leadership skills and collaborate on solutions to local and global challenges.

OSUN Facts

  • What Is OSUN?
  • Why is OSUN being created?
  • Who will lead OSUN? And who else will be part of the network?
  • What will OSUN do?
  • Where will OSUN operate?
  • When will OSUN start up?
  • What makes OSUN distinct?
  • What is OSUN’s added value?
  • What impact is OSUN expected to make?

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places new york - hudson valley ny state 

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Apr 20, 2017 - His earliest musical influences came from the church—choir and group ... Wyeth also backed Roger McGuinn and Don McLean, and appeared on four ... Yoko Ono said the phrase during a magazine interview in 1967 and Lennon later ... Her biography of Bernstein was, according to Leon Botstein, the first ...
Congressional Chorus: Nevertheless, She Persisted … America's Women Composers ... "A Chorus Line" Directed by Broadway's Michael Serrecchia ...
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... Aeglagh Vannin, African Children's Choir, African Sanctus, After Laughter Tour, Agnes Nicholls, Ahmed ... Bagism is a term which was created by John Lennon and Yoko Ono as part of their extensive peace campaign in the late 1960s. ... Don McLean ... Leon Botstein (born December 14, 1946 in Zürich, Switzerland) is a ...

"American Pie" is a song by American singer and songwriter Don McLean. New!!: New York ... New York City and Don't Bore Us, Get to the Chorus! · See more » ... 

 Jack Ma

hangzhou (and marco polo's silk road across eurasia) diaspora chinese island tokyo chiense mainland  

 Vincent Chang, & Fazle Abed (1926-2019) 

bangladesh taiwan berkeley mit yale shenzen  

 george soros

budapest vienna ny london liberia sierra leone s sudan 

do you know anyone on this

US-China Music Institute
Advisory Council

  • Chen Yi
  • Martha Liao
  • Tan Dun
  • Ye Xiaogang
  • Shirley Young
  • Yu Long
  • Zhang Xian
  • Zhou Long

soros announces  OSUN - bard convergence of 32 billion round world's most open college network for sdgs

Bard College and Partners Establish Global Network to Transform Higher E...



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bard/osun advice online


This collection of technological tips, instructional strategies, and sample assignments and activities was designed by the Open Society University Network (OSUN) faculty as they transition to remote learning. Central to all of these practices is establishing a clear and consistent communication plan with your students.


Additional course-specific activities and assignments coming soon!

Course Continuity Resources*
Strategies for the Transition to Online Learning
*Includes materials specific to Bard College in Annandale.


Seminars are often associated with intimate, in-person classes. What follows is a list of a range of different possible activities that one might use in an in person seminar, with approaches intended to offer options to replicating these activities online.




It is extremely important that students, who might suddenly be learning in isolation, have the sense of being part of a class community. The activities that follow represent different approaches to building a learning community online that is sustained throughout the entirety of the course and hopefully beyond.


Engaging in online learning is a very different experience from in person, seminar-style classes. Many students might initially struggle to adjust. What follows are some suggestions for how to help students as they move online, and identify the kind of engagement (synchronous or asynchronous) that works best with the student’s new situation.



Online courses can use many of the same strategies that in person classes use to keep students engaged. Guest speakers can be invited to join via video conferencing synchronously. Students can also replicate the same formal structures (i.e. hand raising) of the in person classroom environment.


Designing an online course is normally a detailed process that takes a lot of instructional design and planning. When shifting to online learning mid semester, many faculty opt to record or pre-record lectures (video or audio), and use online apps to replicate the classroom blackboard or whiteboard.

Video: Creative Assignments for Teaching Online

A Liberal Arts Approach to Learning During COVID-19


With Maria Sachiko Cecire, Associate Professor of Literature and Director of the Center for Experimental Humanities and Gabriel Perron, Assistant Professor of Biology This session will talk faculty through the collection of low-tech assignment ideas that the Center for Experimental Humanities developed for use during the COVID-19 pandemic, available here. The session will begin with an introduction to the collection, which includes asynchronous and synchronous assignments that students can do on their own, in groups, and with members of their local communities as part of courses in a wide array of fields and subject areas.




Video: Building Communities of Practice Online


Teaching Theatre Online: A Shift in Pedagogy Amidst Coronavirus Outbreak 



Leon Botstein made Bard College what it is, but can he insure that it outlasts him?

Over the course of nearly forty years Botsteina historian writer and conductorhas built Bard in his own polymath image.
Over the course of nearly forty years, Botstein—a historian, writer, and conductor—has built Bard in his own polymath image.Illustration by John Cuneo

One evening in July, 2013, Leon Botstein, who has been the president of Bard College for four decades, called his top administrators to a meeting at his house, a twin-gabled Victorian in the middle of the campus, which occupies six hundred lush acres on the Hudson River, ninety miles north of New York City. It was warm, and they knew to convene on the porch, where Botstein frequently smokes a pipe and where many Bard-related decisions seem to be made.

Botstein and his director of admissions wanted to discuss the school’s application process. Was it working? Were they attracting the sorts of students they wanted? The discussion turned into a rapid-fire brainstorming session. By the time it was over, Botstein had decided to radically expand the ways in which prospective students could apply to Bard.

“I said, ‘Look, why don’t we start from the beginning? If we had no external pressures, what would be the most straightforward way to apply to Bard, or to college in general?’ ” he recalled later. “Common sense was the prevailing motivation.” He wanted to give high-school students a choice: they could submit test scores, G.P.A., and teacher recommendations or they could write four academic papers like the ones they’d be asked to write in college. The essays—ten thousand words in total—would be assessed by Bard professors. Applicants would get their papers back with grades and comments. Students with an average of B-plus or better would be automatically admitted. “Life is not about odd, tricky problems that try to cheat you out of the little you know,” Botstein said. His aim, as he put it at the time, was to publicly repudiate what he called “the whole rigmarole of college admissions and the failure to foreground the curriculum and learning.”

In the following weeks, Bard professors from all disciplines were called on to submit essay topics related to their fields. By the end of the summer, the list had been winnowed down to twenty-one subjects, including Kantian ethics, economic inequality, and prion disorders. The new application alternative was ready, and Bard’s plan to implement it, effective immediately, was announced on the front page of the Times, just two months after it was conceived. The new admissions process is, as one faculty member put it to me, “a classic Leon gesture,” by which he meant idealistic, expeditiously enacted, showmanly, and absolutely earnest in spirit. The initiative, like its architect, assumes the best of individuals and the worst of institutions.

In the thirty-nine years that Botstein has been president of Bard, the college has served as a kind of petri dish for his many pedagogical hypotheses: that, as he has written, “the performing and visual arts are not a luxury in a free and democratic society” but “symptoms of its existence”; that public intellectuals are often better teachers than newly minted Ph.D.s are; that a liberal-arts education has the power to reduce prison recidivism. Botstein insists that Bard—alternative, creative, freethinking—is a cause as much as a college. It offers degree-granting programs abroad—in Russia, Germany, the West Bank, and Kyrgyzstan—as well as in six New York State correctional facilities. Under the Bard banner, Botstein, whose book “Jefferson’s Children” (1997) argued that the American high-school system is obsolete and infantilizing, has founded alternative public secondary schools in Manhattan, Queens, Newark, Cleveland, and New Orleans. Students begin college work two years early, attend seminar-style classes, and graduate with an associate’s degree. When I visited the Queens campus last May, I saw impressively cosmopolitan teen-agers sipping coffee in class.

I dont care what your mother didIm not eating the fleas off your back.“I don’t care what your mother did—I’m not eating the fleas off your back.”

Botstein has built Bard in his own polymath image. (In addition to his duties as president, he is a historian and a busy orchestral conductor; he has led the American Symphony Orchestra for more than twenty years.) He is celebrated for his grand schemes and the rich donors they attract. Though he has raised more than a billion dollars during his tenure, the college’s finances remain precarious. Bard has lacked both a large body of wealthy alumni and a developed infrastructure for soliciting their donations. One of Botstein’s daughters has joked that he should consider renting out the campus for weddings in the summer. “There are lots of very good things going for Bard,” David Schwab, a chairman emeritus of the board of trustees, told me. “Money is not one of them.”

Botstein is now sixty-seven, and the question of succession is becoming hard to ignore. Mary Patterson McPherson, the former president of Bryn Mawr, has chaired two independent review boards for Bard, one just before Botstein was appointed and another in the late nineties. While she is impressed with Botstein’s transformation of a “very fragile” college into “a place to reckon with,” she is not without her fears. A college, like a campsite, should be in better shape when the custodians leave than when they arrived. “For the students it attracts and the faculty it has, Bard stands out as really seriously underfunded,” McPherson said. “What happens to Bard after Leon? That’s everybody’s worry.”

When I first visited Botstein, one afternoon last spring, he was sitting in his study, which is fortified on every side by books and outfitted with fin-de-siècle furniture from Vienna. Botstein, who is a fastidious dresser, was wearing a bow tie, as he has almost every day since a Seder dinner more than three decades ago at which his father taught him how to tie one. Within minutes, he was fulminating about the iniquities of the college ranking system. In U.S. News & World Report’s current ranking of liberal arts colleges, Bard comes in forty-fifth.

“It’s one of the real black marks on the history of higher education that an entire industry that’s supposedly populated by the best minds in the country—theoretical physicists, writers, critics—is bamboozled by a third-rate news magazine.” He shook his head in disgust. “They do almost a parody of real research,” he continued. “I joke that the next thing they’ll do is rank churches. You know, ‘Where does God appear most frequently? How big are the pews?’ ”

Botstein took a cotton handkerchief out of his pocket. He had no immediate use for it and seemed instead to be acting on behalf of some future self who might want to fiddle with it as a defense against discomposure. He seemed trapped in his agitated state and proceeded to talk about the college ranking system for twelve uninterrupted minutes, describing it as “ludicrous,” “idiotic,” “totally corrupt,” “completely perverse,” and “just nonsensical.” Botstein’s moral outrage, which he expresses in vivid, syntactically complex speech, conceals a relentless idealism, and to spend time in his company is to be convinced moment by moment that he is operating within an insane and crooked system rigged by villains and run by fools. There are certain subjects the mere mention of which increases his heart rate. The college ranking system is one of them, and does to Botstein’s blood pressure what filing back taxes might do to someone else’s. In the process of verbally dismantling the quantification of higher education, he compared Ivy League universities to Gucci handbags and sneaked in concise dismissals of the College Board (“offensive, essentially”), the college essay (“an awful genre”), the S.A.T. (“a totally useless event”), and multiple-choice tests in general (“a grave error in the name of so-called objectivity”). He began to fiddle with his handkerchief.


Botstein’s prolixity does not preclude conversational generosity: he compulsively credits you with making good points that were in fact his. And though he can strike people as a world-class egomaniac, one never feels condescended to. There is a buoyant presupposition of agreement, and his antipathy does not seem personal. In Botstein’s mind, it’s not you who deserve weary scrutiny; it’s the world.

The last time I had seen Botstein was five years earlier, at my graduation. In his academic robes, he looked like a well-fed king. Not once in the years I was a student at Bard did I make a concerted effort to see him, though it would not have been difficult. Botstein teaches a section of the college’s only required course: a great-books survey, in which students read everything from Lucretius and Milton to Virginia Woolf. He regularly hosts teas for students, delivers talks before musical performances, gives interviews to the campus radio station, opens his house for Shabbat dinners, and eats in the cafeteria. Once, when the Medieval Club put on a feast, they cooked it in his kitchen.

To an eighteen-year-old, Botstein’s self-generated glamour is at once intimidating and all too tempting to mock. His passions—besides classical music, he has a love of pocket watches—made him seem to us like a man neither of the twenty-first century nor of America. We referred to him among ourselves as “Leon” and spoke sarcastically of inviting him to our parties. Today, his four-decade tenure strikes me as self-evidently impressive, but back when I was in college it seemed freakish, maybe even a little suspect. I wondered why he hadn’t gone on to a bigger school or found himself some sort of political appointment.

The type of students that Bard strives to attract are easy to caricature. They are smart, independent-minded, artsy, and nonconformist in all the predictable ways. In high school, teachers were probably more impressed with their voracious reading than with their academic discipline, and their interests didn’t necessarily overlap with the classic extracurricular activities. Rather than being student-body presidents or varsity point guards, they took black-and-white photographs of their friends’ shoes, wrote first chapters of postmodern novels, and played in noise bands. They were apt to believe that their talents and interests could be assessed only subjectively. Though sixty-five per cent of Bard’s student body receives financial aid, and twenty-two per cent of this year’s entering class is eligible for Pell Grants, there’s a small but culturally significant population of extremely wealthy kids on campus—the children of media moguls, rock stars, and Hollywood actors.

Classes are small and seminar style. Freshmen arrive on campus three weeks before the fall semester starts, not to river-raft or play getting-to-know-you games but to study philosophy, literature, and religious texts for five hours a day. In January, they are required to stay on campus and work in science labs. Unlike many colleges today, Bard still has distribution requirements. Before declaring a major, sophomores must present and defend papers before a board of professors. All seniors must write theses.

The school remains small—there are fewer than two thousand students—and resources are scarce. But Botstein has built Bard, which saw a thirty-per-cent increase in applications this year, into an academic center that punches far above its weight. It employs some of the country’s best-known thinkers and writers, and hires star architects, such as Frank Gehry, Robert Venturi, and Rafael Viñoly, to design campus buildings. Open any issue of The New York Review of Books and you will see Bard professors listed on the contributors’ page.

Botstein apparently realized early in his tenure that he couldn’t compete with more illustrious institutions for star Ph.D.s. So he set about attracting public intellectuals, who at Bard teach full course loads. “He wants them there for his students,” Daniel Mendelsohn, who teaches at Bard and writes for both The New York Review of Books and this magazine, told me. “He understands the value of a superstar appointment, but these people have to work.” The poet Anne Carson was recently hired, as was the best-selling author Neil Gaiman. Kelly Reichardt, the filmmaker, is an artist in residence and the novelist Teju Cole is a writer in residence. The poet John Ashbery and the photographer Stephen Shore are both professors, as was the writer Chinua Achebe. “When Leon sees an interesting thinker, he just throws money at them until he gets them,” Orville Schell, a Sinologist and the former dean of Berkeley’s journalism school, told me. “And let’s be frank—that’s what it takes in this world.”

Botstein, who has accused other college presidents of doing nothing more than “running something that is somewhere between a faltering corporation and a hotel,” seems genuinely baffled by what he sees as the financial conservatism of most well-endowed liberal-arts schools. “I’m a little mystified about what they do with their money,” he said.

Among his faculty, Botstein’s personality is endlessly pondered. “I’m sometimes astonished by how many conversations I have about Leon Botstein,” the poet Ann Lauterbach, who has been teaching at Bard for more than two decades, said. “You can spend an entire dinner talking about him.” She described Botstein as “near and far,” stretching out her hands and adjusting their position as though focussing a lens. She meant this in the macro sense—that it’s impossible to gauge just how close one is to him. But it’s also true in a more infinitesimal way. Botstein will go from aloof to avuncular to conspiratorial to formal to taking your arm in his and leading you on a friendly stroll, all within the span of an hour.

Youll have to be more specificmy people have more than four hundred different words for snow cone.“You’ll have to be more specific—my people have more than four hundred different words for snow cone.”

Botstein’s reaction to bureaucracy could best be described as allergic, or perhaps even adolescent. His attention span is gnat-short, and he appears physically pained when confronted with procedure. He is agonized by time’s nasty habit of protracting itself in moments of anguish or tedium. At assemblies he has been known to wrap his arms around himself and hunch over until almost in a fetal position.

At the same time, Botstein pays obsessive attention to every aspect of life at Bard. “He’s Zeus,” Mendelsohn said. “He’s up there, and he knows what all the other gods and goddesses are doing, whether you think he knows or not.” Botstein is familiar with the “politics” behind the erection of campus signage, and he takes a “dim view” of having chickens on the campus farm. He has opinions about which translation of Rousseau freshmen should read and why it’s more important to include Plato’s Republic in the first-year curriculum than the Symposium. When staff or faculty members fall ill, he pulls strings to insure that they get the best medical care.

A consistent criticism of Botstein is that he runs Bard like a duchy, that professors’ opinions are routinely disregarded and their expertise ignored. On a number of occasions, he has overridden hiring and tenure decisions made by otherwise supportive departments. Botstein refuses to speak with restraint, even when it’s in his best interest, and his temper was described to me as “Biblical” by an employee who went on to recall, albeit fondly, an outburst that was “a blitzkrieg of torrent, metaphors, congratulation, deceit, and stories that didn’t make any fucking sense at all.”


Geoffrey Sanborn, who was my adviser at Bard and is now an English professor at Amherst, regards his former boss with a mixture of exasperation and grudging respect. About an hour into a telephone conversation, he decided that the most efficient way to sum up Botstein would be by quoting Faulkner, and he put down the phone to search for a copy of “Absalom, Absalom!” Sanborn returned after a few minutes, cleared his throat, and read, “ ‘He had been too successful, you see; his was that solitude of contempt and distrust which success brings to him who gained it because he was strong instead of merely lucky.’ ”

The youngest of three children, Botstein was born at the end of 1946 in Zurich, where his parents, Polish-Russian Jews who had lost family members in the Warsaw Ghetto, were doctors. Ineligible for Swiss citizenship, they emigrated to America and settled in Riverdale, where they spoke “Botsteinese,” an ad-hoc amalgam of English, German, Polish, Yiddish, and Russian. A sixth language, involving manual spelling, was invented when Botstein’s mother went deaf.

The children attended public school, and the house was furnished with items picked up at the Salvation Army. Dinner was at six-thirty sharp and was prepared by an elderly housekeeper brought over from Switzerland, whose favorite saying was “All of life is organization,” and whom all three siblings remember with affectionate trepidation. Botstein’s parents, who had neither hobbies nor material ambitions, restricted family conversation to matters of medicine and scholastic achievement. Their children attended Hebrew school three times a week, and took lessons in German, tennis, woodworking, ballet, acrobatics, and music. Botstein studied the violin from the age of nine, but says that he knew his limits as an instrumentalist and always had his heart set on conducting.

Though his father discouraged only three occupations—his children were not to become financiers, lawyers, or rabbis—Botstein is the only member of his immediate family who isn’t a doctor or a scientist, and whatever professional confidence he projects today was earned through shame and discomfort. Botstein stuttered growing up, and his father sometimes called him Durachyok (Russian for “little fool”), and his early experience has ripened into a lifelong allegiance to underdogs. The objects of his sympathy are diverse. They include incarcerated men and women, immigrants, political exiles, Palestinian university students, and, in his role as a conductor, underperformed operas and orchestral works.

Botstein graduated from high school at sixteen and went to the University of Chicago, where he majored in history and founded the school’s chamber orchestra. He began Ph.D. studies at Harvard, focussing on the social history of modernist music in Vienna. In Cambridge, he met his first wife, with whom he had two daughters. (He has two more children from his second marriage.) In 1970, having left Harvard to be a special assistant to the president of the New York City Board of Education, Botstein took a job as president of Franconia College, a small, now defunct institution in New Hampshire, run out of a former resort hotel. At twenty-three, he was the youngest college president that America had ever had. A 1971 profile that ran in Playboy described him as “a bespectacled, long-haired youth” and included a photo of him, in a rumpled shirt and a paisley tie, next to an office door marked “President” in a curiously Tolkienesque font.

Four years later, when Botstein arrived at Bard as its president, the college was selling off acreage to pay its utility bills, and the Commissioner of Education of the State of New York predicted that it would close within twelve months. The appointment was contentious. He was laughably young and hadn’t yet completed his Ph.D. The college was Episcopal and he was a Jew. “I didn’t have any natural authority with the student body and the faculty,” Botstein said. “They didn’t think I deserved it or had earned it. It was a trial by fire.”

Faculty members, he said, were “routinely hostile and mistrustful.” Students, put off by his ambition and his desire to whip the school into shape, wrote ad-hominem op-eds in the school paper. Fed up, Botstein called a meeting with the students, at which he sought their sympathy, telling them that he was “not a cardboard cutout.” The next day, the campus was teeming with students wearing cardboard cutouts of Botstein pinned to their clothes.

In Botstein’s telling, the turning point in his tenure came in 1981, two years after the breakup of his first marriage, when his seven-year-old daughter, Abigail, was struck by a car and killed. “If you have early success and public visibility, you’re the object of envy,” he said. “That tragedy made me no longer the object of envy.” In the wake of Abigail’s death, Botstein says that he became newly interested in “the challenge of building a great institution and recruiting people to help make that happen.” In mourning, he decided that he would never want to be the president of any other college.

It was at around this time that Botstein expanded his ambitions as a conductor. He founded the Hudson Valley Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra, and in 1990 he instituted the Bard Music Festival, a summer series of classical-music concerts, lectures, and panel discussions. In 1991, the American Symphony Orchestra chose him as its music director. The orchestra, a freelance ensemble, had been founded in the sixties, by Leopold Stokowski, with the aim of mounting inexpensive concerts to popularize classical music. But it was struggling to define itself in a crowded New York music scene. Under Botstein’s leadership, the A.S.O. quickly developed a mission of reviving works that he saw as unjustly neglected. In the decades since, the orchestra has established a reputation for programming rarities by obscure composers like John Foulds, Gavriil Popov, Ethel Smyth, and Vincent d’Indy. Botstein, who writes often on music and has been the editor of The Musical Quarterly for two decades, has been known to call the state of concert programming “a crime against history.” He frequently compares the regular concert repertoire to the Louvre’s opening only a single gallery to the public.

On the podium Botstein does not radiate ease. “I’m not actually that in love with the theatre of the whole business,” he admitted. “But you also have to project the joy of what you’re doing, and that I didn’t quite understand at the beginning.” In July, I saw Botstein conduct a performance of “Euryanthe,” an 1823 opera by Carl Maria von Weber, which hadn’t been staged in America since 1914. He feels that, over the years, his reaction time as a conductor has got quicker and that he’s learned both to employ economy of gesture and not to “compensate for inexperience by talking more.” Nonetheless, his technical skill is far from revered among musicians, and reviewers have often been harsh. An A.S.O. member I talked to spoke of “unidentifiable, arrhythmic gestures,” and said, “He’s a brilliant, gifted intellectual, but he’s a historian—he’s not a musician.” Still, his championing of underperformed music has won him respect, and some of the pieces he has unearthed have been taken up by other, more prominent ensembles. In essence, Botstein has played to his academic strengths, mitigating technical faults with curatorial vision.


He also conducts the conservatory orchestra at Bard, and in late May, the day before the orchestra embarked on a European tour, he appeared in the cafeteria, where the conservatory students were eating lunch and absorbing travel information from a host of chaperons. Bard’s conservatory program, which requires all its participants to double-major, exists for a lot of reasons, and social engineering is one of them. It’s disgraceful to complain about your course load if your classmate down the hall has the same load and also has to practice cello for thirty hours a week.

Botstein called the students to attention with a well-projected “Ladies and gentlemen,” and congratulated them on their hard work, warmly expressing his excitement about the forthcoming trip. For an exceedingly busy, physically imposing, and often abrasive authority figure, Botstein, who himself entered college as a “terribly insecure sixteen-year-old,” is attuned to even the most ordinary forms of other people’s pain. “In every group of this size,” he began, “there are very popular people, some not so popular people, and people nobody wants to hang out with.” The students chuckled halfheartedly. He raised his eyebrows in searing disapproval. “Don’t leave someone in the hotel when you go out gallivanting who doesn’t have a friend,” he pleaded. “Do you know what I mean?” The students nodded, looking down in embarrassment. “We’re travelling as a group, so include people. Include people.” He clasped his hands together and smiled. “I’m very, very proud of you. It’s all going to sound great.” He paused for several seconds. “Especially by the last concert.”

In December, 2013, after a three-month review, Moody’s Investors Service downgraded Bard’s bond rating three notches and revised its outlook to “negative.” The Moody’s report cited Bard’s “exceedingly thin liquidity with full draw on operating lines of credit,” “weak documentation and transparency,” “willingness to fund operations and projects prior to payment on pledges,” and “growing dependence on cash gifts.” (The report found that in 2012 and 2013 more than forty per cent of annual operating revenues came from gifts. Among other small private colleges, about seven per cent is typical.) Six months earlier, Bard had had monthly liquidity of $7.1 million—equal to just two weeks’ worth of operating costs. Bard is highly leveraged, carrying a hundred and sixty million dollars of debt, which is close to its operating budget of a hundred and eighty-five million. The undergraduate endowment (eighty million dollars) is a tenth that of Vassar, a school that is comparable to Bard in both size and age and is one Amtrak stop to the south.

Founded in 1860 as St. Stephen’s, an Episcopal college, Bard, for almost the first century of its existence, had a student body that numbered less than a hundred, and its alumni—priests, mostly—were not wealthy. Forty per cent of all the students the college has ever produced graduated within the past twenty years, making the alumni base not only small but also young.

Emily Fisher, the vice-chair of the board and the ex-wife of the late Richard Fisher, one of Bard’s major donors, told me, “Bard has always educated the kind of student that tends not to go to Wall Street. They haven’t made buckets of money.” Unlike the best-endowed liberal-arts colleges, such as Amherst, Williams, and Swarthmore, Bard has done little to foster links to the business community. On campus, this has its positive side: the atmosphere is intellectually idealistic and anything but pre-professional. But, unsurprisingly, an excess of critical-theory-reading photography majors doesn’t make for a promising donor pool.

“Until relatively recently, Bard was a safety school,” Fisher said. “Its alumni didn’t have a sense of pride and owing to the place.” Although Botstein has changed the school’s reputation beyond recognition, he remains suspicious of the tactics that other schools use to cultivate a sense of shared identity. Greek life at Bard is nonexistent, as are any athletic teams that one might take seriously. Botstein has written that “it is an embarrassment that so much time, effort, emotion, and money are expended on gladiatorial exhibitions.” But, for better or worse, such activities are at the heart of fund-raising. Noah Drezner, an associate professor of higher education at Teachers College, Columbia University, told me, “Studies have shown that former student athletes, even just those who participated in organized college sports, are more likely to give, and give at higher rates.”

No one I know from college owns a single item of Bard College merchandise—no sweatshirts, no umbrellas, no bumper stickers. If there are meet-ups for Bard alumni at financial-district bars, I don’t know about them. Bard’s ethos of quixotic unworldliness is appealing—it’s part of why I ended up there—but it’s never occurred to me to donate money to the place.

Instead of appealing to alumni, Botstein’s chief tactic has been to court a few exceptionally wealthy donors. “We’re in the business of looking for large investors,” he told me. “Basically, the people who created the college are Leon Levy, Dick Fisher, and George Soros.”

Soros, with whom Botstein has had a long and affectionate relationship, recalls being introduced to Botstein more than thirty years ago. “He impressed me with his intelligence, and we shared the same values, so it was a meeting of the minds and—call it hearts, if you like,” he told me. “A Polish Jew is not all that different from a Hungarian Jew,” he added. Soros finds Botstein “an amusing raconteur,” and Botstein—who has long been on the board of Soros’s Open Society Foundations—happily plays the part of house contrarian at meetings.

What Moody’s calls Bard’s “superior but concentrated donor support” is at once a boon and a liability. Though the average yearly revenue from gifts to the college from 2011 to 2013 (seventy-two million dollars) was seven times the amount that most liberal-arts colleges receive annually, heavy dependence upon a small number of funders puts Bard in an inherently precarious situation.

Soros’s ex-wife Susan Weber told me, “It’s not healthy for an institution to have just a few big donors. People change their minds. Unfortunately, they have heart attacks; they get hit by buses. People are fickle.” Weber, a trustee of Bard and a major donor and fund-raiser, is also the founder and director of a Bard graduate center for studies in the decorative arts. Of Botstein, she said, “Everyone says, ‘Oh, he’s the most amazing fund-raiser,’ Well, I wish that were so, because we wouldn’t be so underfunded if he were that amazing. I think he’s good at it—he works hard at it—but his real strength is building an institution.”

Almost everything about the way Botstein has run Bard and raised money for it has put the place on the map. “Poverty made us great,” he told me. “We had to invent a reason to command people’s respect.” Jane Brien, the director of alumni affairs, told me of a much-repeated Botstein saying: “People don’t give money to a wounded bird—they give money to a rare bird.” But to consolidate his achievement it is now up to Botstein to embrace the ultimate act of paternalism: securing a future for the institution in anticipation of his exit. “For a long time, it was clear to everyone that without Leon there could be no more Bard,” Marcelle Clements, a Bard trustee, told me. “If he disappeared, the whole thing would dematerialize. But in the last few years I’ve heard Leon himself talk about the future of the institution in a different way.” Bard desperately needs an endowment; establishing one will almost certainly mean adopting the conventional development strategies that Botstein has always avoided. Failure to do so could jeopardize his life’s work.


Botstein raised the subject at an alumni brunch in May, and his tone was more alarmist than usual. Without alumni support, “this place will not survive—it can’t,” he warned. “There’s only so much you can do against the grain, but you can’t survive without money. You cannot be a first-class place without money. It’s just not possible.” Like a blissfully oblivious child who learns as an adult that her parents’ marriage has been miserable for decades, I found the urgency of his pleas almost physically shocking. Last month, at the first faculty meeting of the year, Botstein said that he plans to remain as president for another decade and to leave his successor with an endowment of four hundred million dollars, the proceeds of a five-year campaign that has yet to be formally announced. The promise comes either in the nick of time or decades too late.

On the last Saturday in May, I spent the morning in the back seat of a van, travelling from Columbus Circle a hundred miles north to Woodbourne Correctional Facility, a medium-security men’s prison in Sullivan County. Among the other passengers were Arlander Brown, a formerly incarcerated thirty-two-year-old, and members of his family, who were on their way to see his college-graduation ceremony, as part of the Bard Prison Initiative, a program whose first degree recipients graduated in 2008.

The prison yard was outfitted for the day with picnic tables set for a buffet lunch. Twenty-two men, the cuffs of prison uniforms just visible under their academic gowns, made their way from a corner of the yard near a watchtower into a gleaming white tent, where they proceeded down an aisle flanked by family members, many of them crying. Brown was one of three men who had been released from the prison and had come back to receive their associate’s degrees. The other graduates would return to their cells at the end of the day.

Sean Patrick Maloney, the representative from New York’s Eighteenth Congressional District, spoke, as did Robert Fullilove, a professor at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. Botstein, who had conducted a concert at Carnegie Hall the night before, delivered a presidential charge. “Others will tell you how significant our program is,” he said, looking out not at the audience but at the rows of graduates, sitting just in front of the stage. “There is an emphasis on how much we do for you. But you ought to know that you do a lot for us.” When the situation calls for it, Botstein’s voice telegraphs a wizardly moral authority. Everyone responds to it, but parents, primed to be proud of their children, are especially susceptible. “We live in a time where people don’t really believe in education. That doubt is something we struggle with,” he said. “Your enthusiasm, your determination, your idealism about education gives back to us a reminder of why we should fight for what we do.”

Aside from the deafening interruption, at noon, of a prison clock, the graduation ceremony was exactly like the one on Bard’s main campus, a week before. This was intentional. The graduates threw their caps in the air and posed for pictures with their families.

The Bard Prison Initiative (B.P.I.) was founded in 1999 by an undergraduate, Max Kenner, who was concerned about the extraordinary growth of the prison system and thought that Bard could do something to help. College-in-prison programs, though controversial and rapidly disappearing across the country (George Pataki, New York’s governor, made ending them a part of his agenda), had been shown to be the most inexpensive and effective way of reducing recidivism. Kenner saw an opportunity for Bard to show leadership. He scheduled a meeting with Botstein and, a few weeks later, found himself facing an audience of seven senior administrators. He gave a five-minute presentation suggesting that Bard figure out a way to extend the liberal arts to the growing population of incarcerated Americans. “Leon just said, ‘Let’s do it.’ There was literally not a pause,” Kenner recalled, laughing. “Most people in positions of authority look for reasons to say no, and Leon is really the opposite.”

B.P.I. has helped to establish college-in-prison programs across the country and is now active in nine states. Challenging common preconceptions about what education in prison should look like—remedial classes, G.E.D. prep, vocational programs—B.P.I. offers its students the same course of study that regular Bard students receive. Nearly three hundred incarcerated people are enrolled with Bard; roughly the same number have graduated. Wesleyan, Grinnell, and Goucher have launched programs under Bard’s guidance, and large universities, including Notre Dame and Washington University in St. Louis, are also involved.

Arlander Brown told me, “As you learn to be a better critical reader you learn to be a better self-critic, too.” He is now an editorial assistant at a publishing house in Manhattan and a student at Hunter College. I heard something similar from Anibal Cortes, who was in the first class at B.P.I. “If you put that kind of humanistic education into the inherently dehumanizing space of prison, you can restore a person’s individual agency,” he said. Cortes earned his B.A. in 2008, having written a senior thesis on infant mortality in early-twentieth-century New York City, and, in May, graduated from Columbia with a master’s in public health. He is now a family-services specialist at the Fortune Society.

Among Bard’s many projects, including the foreign campuses and the alternative high schools, B.P.I. is perhaps the signal success. But although it is now self-funding, such programs are a significant drain on Bard’s resources. The high schools, though largely government-funded, siphon off about two million dollars a year from the college itself, a small sum at many institutions but not at Bard.

Yes everythingI need a list of all the medications youre on.“Yes, everything—I need a list of all the medications you’re on.”

The proliferation of ancillary programs at Bard reflects a fundamental dynamic in today’s nonprofit world. It’s far easier to interest big donors in funding eye-catching initiatives than in funding unglamorous core activities. (At colleges, the latter usually end up being supported by incremental gifts from alumni, parents, and friends.) Many people I spoke to said that Botstein’s great strength as a fund-raiser is that he thinks like a donor. This strategy has got Botstein, among other things, a new baseball diamond, which isn’t the sort of thing that usually interests him, and a Frank Gehry-designed performing-arts center, which is. He has secured libraries for the college and lavish laboratories. The Bard programs overseas are reliably funded by N.G.O.s and philanthropists. What thinking like a donor has failed to yield is robust funding for day-to-day operations. Historically, donors have given to Botstein, but what Botstein now needs is for donors to give to Bard.

At the beginning of August, just before the new class of freshmen arrived on campus, I went to see Botstein’s horological collection, which he had described to me in animated detail. He believes that a well-made clock is the ultimate “triumph of art and engineering.” Botstein was biographically primed to catch the watch-collecting bug: his parents helped members of his mother’s family survive the Warsaw Ghetto by sending them watches from Switzerland, which they used for bartering with Nazi officers.

Botstein brought out an armful of cases containing some of his collection. Made of black leather with buckles, they resembled travelling backgammon boards. He opened the boxes one by one. Inside were golden grids, each pocket watch nestled in a small divot, like a truffle. Botstein extracted an eighteenth-century Swiss specimen, removed the back casing with a knife, and motioned for me to inspect its innards. He pulled out a watch by Charles Fasoldt, a German maker who immigrated to America in the middle of the nineteenth century and set up shop in upstate New York: “He was a maniac!” Botstein exclaimed. “He didn’t follow anybody’s rules!”

He opened more cases. One watch told the time to a quarter of a second, its hands spinning furiously; another, from the French Revolution, ran on decimal time. Botstein excitedly described a pocket watch he was considering trading for: it had been made for a maharaja, and had two sets of hands, one black and one gold, that swept around a single dial, in order to tell the time simultaneously in India and in England. He scoffed at the idea of a person wanting a watch that would tell the phases of the moon, and said that the most accurate watches did nothing but tell the time: “The more complications—it’s like the car that also swims and flies. Well, it might not be such a great car. ”

Botstein pointed out balance wheels, regulators, tourbillons. He demonstrated different chimes. With each passing second, he spoke faster, like a boy eager to show off a model airplane and impatient for you to share his enthusiasm. “I never have anything that doesn’t work,” he said. “I’m extremely allergic to things that don’t work.” ♦

this could be very exciting for america's inner-citizens - but i know no more than the search
bard humanities microcollege brooklyn - Google Search -also i will visist bard dc school systme - see footnote from clara botstein one of the daughters of leon botstein

this is the pr weform (schwab) linking soros billion dollar new investment integrating all his previous 31 billion in open society including his won university that has had to be moved to vienna with ban ki moon who has also relaunched his own connections with climate with the netherlands

Bard College and Partners Establish Global Network to Transform Higher Education

schwab's youth network also interesting - 300 global shapers hubs which jim kim helped host in his first public sumit after leaving world bank and 4 IR$ metahubs in the capitals of japan china india and west coast usa alongside his head office in geneva which is where un maps world trade digital coopration health and 5g as well as maybe peace/nuclear


The Open Society Prize was granted to economist and Nobel Prize laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz for a lifetime of brilliant economic analysis and outspoken advocacy of open society values.


The Open Society Prize was awarded to the distinguished Hungarian economist Janos Kornai in recognition of his work inspiring economic transition in former communist societies.


Joachim Gauck, president of Germany from 2012 to 2017, was awarded the 2017 Open Society Prize in recognition of his courageous defense of human rights and his distinguished record in the service of free societies.


MSF was named the winner of the 2016 CEU Open Society Prize in recognition of the courageous humanitarian leadership the organization has shown throughout the world. 


IRF was named the winner of the 2015 CEU Open Society Prize in recognition of its contribution to efforts toward the creation of an open society in Ukraine. 

2014 / KRISTALINA GEORGIEVA, European Commissioner for International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response

The Open Society Prize was granted to Georgieva for her activity and direct involvement in crisis management and aid to Haiti, Pakistan, and Chile after natural disasters. 

2013 / SIR FAZLE HASAN ABED KCMG, Founder and Chairperson of BRAC

The Open Society Prize was granted to Abed for establishing BRAC (formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) to initiate rehabilitation activities in Bangladesh. BRAC has become the largest development organization in the world in terms of the scale and diversity of its interventions. BRAC is ranked #1 on the Global Journal's list of Top 100 NGOs. 

2012 / ARYEH NEIER, Former President of the Open Society Foundations

2011 / JAVIER SOLANA, High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy/Secretary General of the Council of the European Union and co-recipient RICHARD C. HOLBROOKE, U.S. Special Envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan (awarded posthumously)

2010 / LOUISE ARBOUR, President and CEO of The International Crisis Group, Chief Prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda.

2009 / MARTTI AHTISAARI, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate (2008), Former President of the Republic of Finland (1994-2000), and Founder of the Crisis Management Initiative

2008 / KOFI A. ANNAN, Seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations

2007 / CARLA DEL PONTE, Former Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

The Open Society prize was granted to Del Ponte in recognition of her enormous contribution to the process of achieving justice for the victims of serious violations of international humanitarian law.

2006 / RICARDO LAGOS, Former President of Chile

The Open Society Prize was granted to Lagos for his enormous contribution to the political and social development of Chile, notably the crucial role he played in the fight for the recovery of democracy there and the substantial social, economic and educational reforms which he initiated in his long and distinguished political career. 

2005 / ANTJIE KROG, Poet, Writer, Journalist

2004 / EMMA BONINO, Member, European Parliament

2003 / TOM LANTOS, Congressman, U.S. House of Representatives

2002 / MIKHEIL SAAKASHVILI, Former Minister of Justice of Georgia 
and co-recipient ZURAB ZHVANIA, Former Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia

2001 / BRONISLAW GEREMEK, Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland

2000 / ARPAD GONCZ, President of the Republic of Hungary and co-recipient MAMPHELA RAMPHELE, a Managing Director of the World Bank

1999 / VACLAV HAVEL, President of the Czech Republic

1994 / KARL POPPER, Philosopher 

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